In this chapter, we will cover known classifiers that can be used in X-ray testing. Several examples will be presented using Python. The reader can easily modify the proposed implementations in order to test different classification strategies. We will then present how to estimate the accuracy of a classifier using hold-out, cross-validation and leave-one-out. Finally, we will present an example that involves all steps of a pattern recognition problem, i.e., feature extraction, feature selection, classifier’s design, and evaluation. We will thus propose a general framework to design a computer vision system in order to select—automatically—from a large set of features and a bank of classifiers, those features and classifiers that can achieve the highest performance.